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 Form 3 History: European Invasion and the Process of Colonization of Africa

Course of the Chimurenga war

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Course of the Chimurenga war
-Mlimo's call to battle happened at a time when the BSA Co's Administrator General for Matabeleland, Leander Starr Jameson, had sent most of his troops to fight the Transvaal Republic in the ill-fated Jameson Raid in Dec. 1995 leaving the country's defenses in disarray.
War in Matabeleland.
-On 29th March 1896, the Ndebele High Priest Umlugulu, with senior indunas, organized a ceremony to install Umfezela as Lobengula’s successor. On that day, The Ndebele rebels killed the whites on their farms as they found them by surprise.
-They also killed African policemen in the British force.
-The European settlers took refuge in fortified camps in Bulawayo, Gwelo, Belingwe and Mangwe.
-The British immediately sent troops to suppress the Ndebele and the Shona, but it cost the lives of many settlers, Ndebele, and Shona alike.
- The Matabele military defiance ended only when Burnham found and assassinated Mlimo, thanks to a Zulu informant.
-The Ndebele finally agreed to peace talks with Rhodes during which Rhodes agreed to disband the shona police and give the Ndebele headmen some powers as indunas.
The War in Mashonaland.
-On 17 June 1896, the Hwata dynasty at Mazowe attacked the Alice Mine.
- They succeeded in driving away the British settlers from their lands on 20 June 1896. In the same month, Mashaykuma, working with
the local spiritual leader Kagubi, the Zezuru Shona people in killing a British farmer Norton and his wife at Porta Farm in Norton. With the war in Matabeleland ending in October 1897, Gen.
-Carrington was able to concentrate his forces on Mashonaland. Nehanda Nyakasikana and Kagubi Gumboreshumba were captured and executed in
1898, but Mkwati, a priest of the Mwari shrine, was never captured and died in Mutoko.
-Traditional leaders played a major role in the rebellion, notably Chief Mashayamombe, who led resistance in Mhondoro, Gwabayana, Makoni, Mapondera, Mangwende and Seke.