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 Form 3 History: European Invasion and the Process of Colonization of Africa

Methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa.

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Answer Text:
Methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa.
1) Signing of treaties;
a) Treaty signing with African leaders.
-The British signed the Maasai Agreements (1904 and 1911), Buganda Agreement of 1900 and the Lewanika-Lochner treaty with Lozi.
b) Treaties signed amongst European powers. These were known as Partition Agreements. For example;
-The Anglo-Germany Agreements of 1886 and 1890 and Heligoland between the British and the Germans over the sharing of East Africa.
2) Military conquest/ Use of force. Europeans employed
outright war against those societies that resisted their invasion. E.g The Nandi of Kenya, The Mandinka people of Senegal and the Maji Maji wars (1905-1907).
3) Use of missionaries as frontrunners. The Europeans used missionaries, carrying a bible in one hand and a gun in the other, who tried to convince the Africans to support the European goals.
- Missionaries manipulated local quarrels and took sides in a view to promote European occupation.
4) Treachery and Divide and rule policy.
- The Europeans instigated inter-tribal wars causing some Africans to support them against warring communities. E.g. use of the
Wanga against the Luo and the Luhya in Kenya, the Ndebele/shona against the Lozi in Rhodesia.
5) Use of company rule. The British and the Germans used chartered companies to acquire and rule their colonies. for example, the role played by the British South African Company of Cecil Rhodes, Imperial
British East African Company of Sir William Mackinnon and the German East Africa Company of Carl Peters.
6) Luring/enticements. The Europeans gave gifts like cloth, weapons tools, drinks etc to African chiefs like Lewanika of the Lozi and Mwanga of Buganda thus
luring them into collaboration.
7) A blend of diplomacy and force. The British for example initially signed treaties with the Ndebele (Moffat and Rudd treaties), but they fought them during the Ndebele war of 1897.