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 Form 2 History and Government online lessons on urbanization

Early urban centres in Europe:Athens and how Athenians were divided

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Answer Text:
Early urban centres in Europe.
Athens.
- This is one of the early states in ancient Greece that flourished after the Persian wars of between 490-480 BC.
- Athens developed from a farming settlement situated in a defensive
site. It had many beautiful buildings such as the Parthenon (a large temple built between 460 and 430 BC in honour of Athena, the goddess of Athens).
- The concept of democracy first developed in Athens. At the centre of the city was a market, Agora,
which was used as an assembly hall for debates.
- Athenians were divided into four classes:
(a) First class –the richest that were the most heavily taxed.
(b) Second class- provided the cavalry for the army.
(c) Third class- provided the soldiers for the infantry.
(d) The fourth class- the poorest and who paid no taxes.
- Athens began to decline due to the Peloponnesian wars (431-404 BC).
- It was finally crushed in 338 BC by Phillip of Macedonia.
- Currently, Athens is the capital of Greece with a population of 4 million.


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