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 Form 2 History and Government online lessons on transport

Modern means of transport: road transport

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Answer Text:
Modern means of transport.
Road transport.
- The invention of the wheel stimulated the construction of roads.
- The Roman soldiers built hard and straight roads all over Europe and North Africa by around 300 BC.
- The roads were built by digging a trench, 1.5
metres deep which then would be packed with heavy stones or rocks.
- Rough and fine concrete was added to the foundation, then layers of gravel, chalk and cement.
- The road surface was slightly convex with deep trenches on the sides.
- Roman roads declined with the fall of the Roman Empire.
- However, modern road construction is attributed to John McAdam (1756-1836).
- McAdam laid three layers of small broken stones packed tightly together.
- He then placed a layer of gravel which was bound together by the weight of a vehicle.
- These roads were called the flexible roads or macadamized roads.
- The roads were straight and had a smooth surface.
- They were widely used all over the world.
- They had curved surfaces and had a Good drainage system.
- They were cheap and durable.
- The roads were later improved by adding tar to produce a water proof surface called tarmac.