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 Form 2 Geography Lessons on Climate

In this lesson we are going to discuss the the world climatic regions

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Answer Text:
World Climatic Regions
1. Hot climates
2. Warm climates
3. Cool climates
4. Very cold climates
5. Mountain climates
6. Micro/local climates
Hot/Tropical Climates
- Experienced within the
tropical latitudes.
- Subdivided into:
(a) Equatorial climate
(b) Tropical monsoon climate
(c) Savannah climate/Sudan
(d) Tropical desert climate
(e) Tropical marine climate
Equatorial climate
-Experienced in the following
(a) Amazon basin in S.
(b) Along west coast of Africa
from guinea to Cote d’ Ivoire.
(c) Southern part of Nigeria
through Cameroon, Gabon,
Central African Republic,
Congo to Zaire.
(d) S.E Asia in Malaysia,
Indonesia and a stretch between
Burma and Vietnam.
• High temperatures throughout
the year (between 24-27◦c).
• Temperature neither rises nor
drops too low due to thick cloud
cover all year round.
• Heavy rainfall throughout the
year (mean annual of about
• Double maxima rainfall
• Experiences convectional
rainfall in low lands and relief
rainfall in areas of high relief.
• High relative humidity of over
80% due to convergence of
moist air masses and high evapo
transpiration rates.
• Low pressure all year round.
• There are no seasons.
Tropical Monsoon Climate
It’s found in the following
(a) S.E Asia in parts of
Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, S.
china and Philippines.
(b) Along the northern coastal
region of Australia.
• High mean annual
temperatures of about 28◦c.
• Seasonal reversal of winds.
• Heavy rainfall when monsoon
winds are onshore (600-
1300mm) climate.
• Rain falls in a few months and
the rest of the year is dry due to
influence of latitude.
• Low pressure in summer when
winds blow onshore.
• High pressure in summer
when winds blow offshore.
• Cloudy skies in summer and
clear skies in winter.
Tropical Marine Climate
It’s found on windward slopes
of islands and coastal areas on
the east of continents under the
influence of S.E Trade Winds in
the following areas:
(a) C. America in S. Mexico
through Guatemala, Nikaragua
and Panama.
(b) N. coast of S. America.
(c) Caribbean islands of Cuba,
Haiti and Jamaica.
(d) Coastlands of E. Africa from
Kenya, Tanzania through
Mozambique and E. Malagasy.
• Summer temperatures are very
high approximately 30◦c.
• High rainfall totals in summer
when winds are onshore (1000-
• Orographic and convectional
rainfall in summer.
• Dry winters due to winds
being offshore.
• High humidity due to coastal
• Experiences tropical cyclones
towards end of hot season.
• Winters are cool (about 21◦c).
Continental/Savanna/ Sudan
- The largest natural climatic
region in Africa.
It’s found in the following
(a) In Africa it extends from
Senegal through E. Africa to the
northern part of s. Africa.
(b) Western Madagascar.
(c) A broad belt in N. Australia.
(d) N.W and S.E of Amazon
Basin called Llanos and
• Higher temperatures of up to
32◦in hot season.
• Large diurnal range of
temperature in dry season.
• Convectional rainfall in
summer averaging 765mm
• High humidity during the hot
wet season.
• Low humidity in cooler drier
• Prevailing winds are mainly
trade winds.
Types of deserts
Erg - Sandy deserts with large
amounts of deposited sand.
Hamada - Rocky deserts made
of bare surfaces.
Reg - Rocky deserts covered
with angular pebbles, gravels
and boulders.
Hot continental interior deserts
found on the interior of
continents on the leeward sides
of high mountains e.g. Sahara
and Arabian Desert.
Coastal deserts of western
margins characterised by
offshore trade winds and cold
ocean currents e.g. Atacama of
S. America, Namib in Namibia
and Arizona in U.S.A.
Mid latitude deserts of
continental interiors with high
summer and low winter like
Gobi in C. Asia.
Ice and snow deserts of polar
lands like Greenland and
Antarctica desert.
Tropical Desert Climate
- Found on the western coasts of
continents washed by cold
ocean currents.
They are the following:
(a) Arabian Desert of the
middle East
(b) Sahara, Kalahari and Namib
deserts in Africa.
(c) Atacama Desert in S.
Mohave and Colorado deserts
of U.S.A. and Mexican deserts
in N and C America.
(d) Jordan, Syria, Iran, Iraq,
Saudi Arabia, Israel and
(e) The great Australian desert
in the greater western part of the
High temperatures during
the day and very low
temperatures during the night
due to high terrestrial radiation.
Large diurnal range of
Clear/ cloudless skies.
Receives less than 250mm of
rainfall annually.
Rainfall is localised, short
and torrential and accompanied
by storms which cause flash
Rain falls for a short period
and the rest of the year or even
several years are dry.
High wind velocity due to
little frictional force.
Some areas experience
temperatures below zero in
winter with ice forming on the
Humidity is low and
evaporation rate is high.
Sand storms are very
common i.e. sand being blown
through the air by the wind