Get premium membership and access revision papers with marking schemes, video lessons and live classes.

Form 1 Agriculture Notes on Soil Fertility

Grade/Class: Form 1

Subject: Agriculture

Term: Select Term

Document Type: PDF

    

Views: 863     Downloads: 1

Summary

SOIL FERTILITY (ORGANIC MANURES)

SOIL FERTILITY: ORGANIC MANURES

Lesson Introduction
In the previous lesson you learnt about the supply of water to plants as nutrient.

If one nutrient needed is in low supply, plant growth is limited and crop yield are reduced.

A soil which is able to supply the plant with their nutritional requirements adequately is said to be fertile. Soil fertility is therefore ability of the soil to support and sustain crop growth in order to get maximum yields in a farming system.

Lesson activity
Compost manure
Compost manure is made from a mixture of different types of decayed organic wastes

Materials used to make the compost.
DRY LEAVES
TOP SOIL
ASH
MANURE
CUT GRASS
MAIZE STALKS

Preparation of compost manure in a compost pit
ORANGE
RED
GREY
BLACK
GREEN
BROWN

Soil fertility: – ability of the soil to support and sustain crop growth in order to get maximum yields indefinitely

Leaching:- carrying down of soluble minerals from the top soil by infiltrating water beyond reach by plant roots

Soil erosion:-carrying away of top fertile soil

Mono-cropping:– practice of growing one type of crop on a piece of land over a long time

Crop rotation:- practice of growing different crops on same field in an orderly sequence.


Sequence of crop rotation

Maize 1st season

Beans 2nd season

Potatoes 3rd season

Grass 4th season

Inorganic fertilizers:-chemical compounds that are manufactured to supply specific plant nutrients.
Organic manures:- these are fully decomposed organic substances from plant and animal remains added to the soil to provide one or more nutrients

Humus:- end product of decomposition which is mostly dark in color.

Green manure:-type of manure made of green plants when fully decayed.

Farmyard manure: - is a mixture of fully decomposed animal waste (urine and dung) and crop residues

used as animal bedding in animal houses.

Compost manure: - manure prepared from compost (heaped) organic materials.

Maize
1st season

Beans
2nd season

Potatoes
3rd season

Grass
4th season

AIM: To determine how the following affect the quality of farm yard manure.
i.) Type of litter used
ii.) Age of manure
iii.) Age of animal
iv.) Type of feed

Apparatus and materials
- Different types of legumes, grass
- Different types of beddings, straw, legume remains, grass, wood shavings
- Animals of different ages
- Housing-zero grazing unit

Procedure
Place your animals into four categories as shown below
1 - Mature cow feed it exclusively on grass. place litter of wood savings
2 - Mature cow-feed it on grass and legumes .place litter of wood savings
3 - A calf- feed it on grass and wood shaving on the floo
4 - A calf feed it on grass and legumes
- Remove the beddings after 4 weeks
- Deposit the beddings in a well prepared and shaded place separately
- Replace the bedding in the animal house with a new layer
- Give the manure adequate time to decompose in three or four groups
- Use some of the manure to grow vegetables
Record all the changes that happened to manure and beddings
Record differences noticed between plots grown with different manures
Write a comprehensive report on your project

Tips to teacher on the marking scheme for project
1.The manure changed colour from green to black colour

- The component of the manure are completely decomposed

From the experiment it was noticed that the following affect the quality of farm yard manure
i.)-Type of food eaten
-manure from animals feed on both grass and legumes show better performance compared to that from animals fed on grass only

ii.)-Type of litter used

Where remains from legumes were used the manure gave better results compared to saw dust

iii.)-Age of animals

The calves gave manure of high quality compared to the older cows

iv.)-Method of storage

Manure that was stored in the open lost most of its nutrients by leaching and volatilization. the manure stored under a shed gave higher performance

v.)-Age of farm yard manure
Well rotten manure is rich in nutrients and it is easy to handle and mix with the soil.

Fixation of nutrients.
Lesson Activity:

Ways of loosing and maintaining fertility
Soil erosion
Leaching
Crop rotation
Monocropping
Proper drainage
Weed control
Use of manure
Mixed cropping
Burning vegetation
Control of soil PH
Salt accumulation
Use of inorganic fertilizer
Change of soil PH

By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:-
* define soil fertility
* distinguish between organic matter and manure
* explain how soil fertility can be maintained
* explain how soil looses fertility
* explain the importance of organic matter in the soil
* describe the different organic manure well
* prepare compost manure.
* prepare compost manure.

Lesson Outline
* Characteristic of fertile soil
* Problems of manures
* Importance of manures
* Importance of organic matter
* Ways in which soil loose/gain fertility
* Green manure
* Farm yard manure
* Compost manure

What is soil fertility ?
Ability of the soil to support and sustain crop growth in order to get maximum yields indefinitely Maintaining soil fertility What is crop rotation? Crop rotation is practice of growing different crops on same field in an orderly sequence over given period of time. This is one way of maintaining soil fertility


SOIL FERTILITY
Characteristics of a fertile soil
Good depth:-Deep soil gives plant roots greater volume to obtain plant nutrients and provide strong anchorage
Proper drainage:-
A well drained soil is properly aerated promoting healthy root development. Well aerated soils allow root respiration and reduce the build up of carbon dioxide to toxic levels.
Good water holding capacity:-
This ensures that enough water is retained for plant use.
Adequate nutrient supply:-
It should supply the nutrients needed by plants in the correct amount and in form that is available to the crop
Correct soil pH:-
Different crops have different soil pH requirements. Certain plant nutrients are only available at a specific soil pH.
Pests and diseases:-
Free from excessive infestation of soil borne pests and diseases
Good depth:-
Deep soil gives plant roots greater volume to obtain

Ways of maintaining soil fertility
* Irrigation
* Crop rotation
* Proper drainage
* Weed control
* Use of manure
* Mixed cropping
* Control of soil PH
* Use of inorganic fertilizer

Ways of loosing soil fertility
* Soil erosion
* Leaching
* Monocropping
* Salt accumulation
* Change of soil PH
* Burning vegetation

Characteristics of organic manure

ORGANIC MANURES
Soil fertility is usually improved by use organic manure.
Humus- end product of decomposition which is mostly dark in colour.

Organic manure.
These are fully decomposed organic substances from plant and animal remains added to the soil to provide one or more nutrients.

Advantages and disadvantages of organic manures.
Are readily available and cheap
Add plant nutrients to the soil
Do not pollute the soil
Improve water holding capacity of the soil

Prevent soil from being overheated
Support life of tiny animals living in the soil.
Manures are bulky to handle
Some crop diseases, pests and weeds may be spread through manures
A lot of labour is required to apply manure onto a farm

Types of organic manure
There are three types of organic manure namely:
* Farm yard manure
* Green manure

Farm yard manure
Farm yard manure is made up of animal wastes and bedding from animal houses

Factors which affect the quality of farm yard manure are :-
* Type of litter used
* Age of manure
* Age of animal

Harvesting materials for green manure
preparation

Factors which affect the quality of green manure
* Type plant material
* Age plant growth
* Fertility of the area where material were grown
Type of litter used
Age of manure
Age of animal

 

More Notes