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 Form 1 Geography Online Lessons on Mining

In this lesson we are going to learn about Petroleum in Middle East and the benefits that its meaning brings to the economy

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Answer Text:
Petroleum in the Middle East
-Oil is a thick black sticky liquid called crude oil
• It was formed from small creatures that lived in shallow lagoons about 100-200m ago.
• Decaying remains of those creatures mixed with mud at the bottom as sediments
• The sediments piled on each other and slowly transformed into sedimentary rocks
• Gradually the remains were converted into oil and gas.
-Major oil producers in the Middle East are Saudi Arabia with the largest reserves, Iraq, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates.
-Middle East accounts for 64% of world oil reserves.
-There are several giant oil fields in Ghawar in Saudi Arabia and Kirkuk in Iraq.
Processing
-Crude oil is processed by refining using a technique called fractional distillation.
-The process takes place near as possible to the market as it’s cheaper to transport crude oil than the different refined products.
-It’s processed into secondary products such as petrol, paraffin, lubricating oils, dyes, fertilizers and plastics.
• Impurities are removed from the crude oil
• Crude oil is heated before entering fractionating column
• It’s turned into vapour or gas
• Different ingredients turn back to liquid at different temperatures.
• Ingredients gradually cool, condense and collect in various trays and allowed to overflow until they reach an outlet.
Contribution to the Economies
1. Arab’s investments overseas have increased due to oil reserves.
2. High income per capita due to oil profits.
3. Has led to development of cities e.g. Tripoli in Libya.
4. Investment of oil money in other sectors e.g. power stations, cement factories and exploitation of other minerals.
5. Earns the countries substantial foreign exchange
6. Increased political and military power.
7. Artesian water is made available for domestic and irrigation purposes e.g. in Libya.
8. Oil companies help in fixing down the sand dunes and planting trees in the deserts.


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