Meaning and how X-rays are produced
X-RAYSX-rays were discovered by a German scientist named Roentgen in 1985. They can pass through most substances including soft tissues of the body but not through bones and most metals. They were named X-rays meaning 'unknown rays'.X-ray productionThey are produced by modified discharge tubes called X-ray tubes. The cathode is in the form of a filament which emits electrons on heating. The anode is made of solid copper molybdenum and is called the target. A high potential difference between the anode and the cathode is maintained (10,000 v to1,000,000 or more) by an external source. The filament is made up of tungsten and coiled to provide high resistance to the current. The electrons produced are changed into x-rays on hitting the anode and getting stopped. Only 0.2% of the energy is converted into x-rays. Cooling oil is led in and out of the hollowof the anode to maintain low temperature. The lead shield absorbs stray x-rays.