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 Form 4 Chemistry: Organic Chemistry II Online Lessons

Meaning of fats and oils with examples

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Answer Text:
- Are esters of long chain carboxylic acids and glycerol
(a). Oils
- Oils occur naturally in plants and animals. Examples: Whale oil, groundnut oil, corn oil and castor oil.
- Oils are liquids at room temperature.
- They have high proportion of esters derived from the unsaturated oleic acid in them.
(b). Fats.
- These occur naturally in animals only. Examples: Tallow, butter from milk, lard from pigs
- Fats are solids at room temperature
- Oils can be converted to fats /hardened into fats by hydrogenation.
- This is the conversion of oils into fats by use of hydrogen; and forms the basis of margarine manufacture.
- During hydrogenation:
-Hydrogen is bubbled into oils under high pressure and temperatures of about #400^oC# in the presence off a nickel catalyst
- Fats and oils are important raw materials in the manufacture of soaps.