Describe how insect pollinated flowers are adapted to pollination
(i) These flowers are large and brightly coloured. If the flowers are small they are grouped into large conspicuous inflorescence to attract insects e.g., Sunflower and other flowers of Compositae family.(ii) If the flower is small and inconspicuous, the bracts may become large and colourful which help to attract insects e.g., Bougainvillea.(iii) Insects and flowers both benefits from their specialized symbiotic relationships; plants are pollinated while insects obtain valuable source of food.(iv) Nectar guides are present at the base of the petals, so that insects coming in search of nectar have to put their proboscis and head into the center of the flower e.g., petunia. In this process their bodies get dusted with pollen grains. When the same insect visits another flower the dusted portion of its body comes in contact with the stigma of that flower.(v) The pollen grains of such flowers are sticky or have spinous outgrowths on the exine, their stigmas are also sticky.