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# Form 2 Geography Lessons on Map Work

In this lesson we are going to discuss how directions are shown in a map

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Location of Places
- Showing of position of a place or feature on a topographical map.
Methods
1.Use of Place Names
-Locating a feature by using the name of the place it’s at e.g. a river in Kisumu,
Nakuru, etc or if it isn’t at a named place locate by the nearest name place e.g. a meander near Garissa town.
2. Use of Direction, Bearing and Distance
This is from a stated position e.g. Locate Nakuru from Nairobi.
Nakuru is 157km N.W of Nairobi.
3. Latitudes and Longitudes
The main longitudes are I.D.L and Greenwich /Prime Meridian.
The main lines of latitudes:
• The equator/Great Circle (0◦) which is the longest.
• Tropic of Cancer (23½◦N) of equator.
• Tropic of Capricorn (23½◦) south of equator.
• The Arctic Circle (66½◦N).
• Antarctic Circle (66 ½ ◦ S).
They are marked at the margins. Latitude is stated first (N or S) and longitude
later (E or W) e.g. X◦N Y◦E
• Identify a place.
• Identify the nearest numbered latitude and longitude.
• Estimate to the nearest 1◦.
4. Grid Reference
Grid lines: network of lines on topographical maps.
-Numbered in small and large numbers and the large ones are used.
Eastings: N-S grid lines called so because they are numbered eastwards.
Northings: W-E grid lines called so because they are numbered northwards.
Grid reference is given in 4 figures or six figures.
In 4 figure the nearest grid line is stated while the 6 figure is estimated in fractions
by dividing the space between grid line into 10 equal parts.
Easting is stated first followed by northing.
In the example below the 4 figure grid references are:
• A-6856
• B-6856
• C-6857
6 figure grid references are:
• A-675555
• B-680560
• C-682568

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