Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.( 20 marks)
As a species, we have a unique propensity to seek out mind- altering chemicals and sometimes to persist in their use even when we know that such behaviour may be damaging our health.
Animals also seem to enjoy intoxicants. For example, apes in the wild will get mildly drunk on over - ripe fruit that has fermented to produce a lot of alcohol. My cats enjoy their Christmas treat of a small cloth mouse stuffed with dried leaves of catmint. But apes do not allow the search of over - ripe fruit to dominate their lives, and cats do seek out a regular supply of catmint, even though it is available in our garden.
The recreational use of drugs seems to have been a part of human behaviour for many thousands of years. Alcohol was probably the first such drug - it is easily available from fruit and wild yeasts that are common in most parts of the world. It was a small step to discover how to control the process of fermentation to make wines and beer. There are records of organised drinking houses in ancient Babylon of more than 3,000 years ago, and wine making was common in all parts of the Roman Empire. Alcoholic beverages appear in the Hebrew Bible, after Noah planted a vineyard and became inebriated.
The production of alcoholic drinks in their almost infinite variety has become a large industry, and their consumption, except in Islamic countries, is widespread around the world. Like many other recreational drugs, alcohol has also been widely used in medicine - including gripe water for restless babies with colic, although nowadays it no longer contains alcohol. Alcohol also plays a role in various religions, as in the communion wine of Christianity. The excessive use of alcohol and the liability to dependence came into special prominence in the deprived cities of the industrial era of the 19th and 20th centuries, where gin was cheap. Most of the countries reacted by placing restrictive laws on the sale of alcohol and by taxing it heavily. During the First World War, claims that war production was being hampered by drunkenness led to pub opening times being restricted and alcohol strength reduced. Despite this, past twenty years saw emergence of 'binge drinking" - people drinking enough alcohol in one session to end up in a stupor.
(Les Iversen (2016) Drugs: A short Introduction (2nd edition) Oxford University Press)
a)What is odd about human behaviour from the first paragraph? (2 marks)
b)Compare the human behaviour to that of animals. ( 4 marks)
c)Why are the figure and the Hebrew Bible mentioned in this passage? (3 marks)
d)Why do you think that alcohol was one of the first drugs to be discovered by humans? (2 marks)
e) According to the passage, how has the society used alcohol positively? ( 2 marks)
f)Animals also seem to enjoy intoxicants ( Begin: Intoxicants..........)( 1 mark)
g)In your own words, explain the factors that led to alcohol abuse. (2 marks)
h) How successful were the restrictions placed on alcohol consumption?( 2 marks)
i)Give the meanings of the following words as used in the passage.( 2 marks)
Read the following Excerpt from A Doll's House and answer the questions that follow. (25 marks)
Krogstad: (changing his tone) Mrs Helmer, you will be so good as to use your influence on my behalf.
Nora: What? What do you mean?
Krogstad: You will be so kind to see that I am allowed to keep my subordinate position in the Bank.
Nora: What do you mean by that? Who proposes to take your post away from you?
Krogstad: Oh, there no necessity to keep up the pretense of ignorance. I can quite understand that your friend is not very anxious to expose herself to the chance of rubbing shoulders with me; and I quite understand too whom I have to thank for being turned off.
Nora: But I assure -
Krogstad: Very likely; but to come to the point, the time has come when I should advise you to use your influence to prevent that.
Nora : But, Mr Krogstad, I have no influence.
Krogstad: Haven't you? I thought you said yourself just now-
Nora: Naturally I did not mean you put that construction on it. What should make you think I have influence on that kind with my husband?
Krogstad: Oh, I have known your husband from our student days. Don’t suppose he is more unassailable than other husbands.
Nora: If you speak slightly of my husband, I shall turn you out of the house.
Krogstad: You are bold, Mrs Helmer.
Nora: I am not afraid of you any longer. As soon as the New Year
comes, I shall in a very short time be free of the whole thing.
Krogstad : (controlling himself) Listen to me, Mrs Helmer. If necessary, I am prepared to fight for my small post in the Bank as if I were fighting for my life.
Nora: So it seems.
a) Briefly describe what happens before this excerpt. ( 4 marks)
b) Why is it important that Krogstad keeps his subordinate position in the bank? (3 marks)
c)Describe the character of Krogstad as revealed in this excerpt.( 4 marks)
d) What friend is Krogstad talking about and how does he know her? ( 3 marks)
e)From elsewhere in the play, what are the actual reasons for his dismissal? (3 marks)
f)Comment on the use of dash in this excerpt. ( 1 mark)
g)"......I shall in a very short time be free of the whole thing". What is being referred to and what else is revealed about it after this excerpt? (4 marks)
h) Give the meaning of the following expressions as used in this excerpt :( 3 marks)
ii) Put that construction on it
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.( 20 marks)
0nce upon a time the Tortoise and Osogo the Bird were great friends. They could visit each other almost every day. Osogo the Bird would go and visit the Tortoise and the Tortoise would escort Osogo the Bird up to his home, and then Osogo the Bird would then escort the Tortoise again up to his home. They would escort each other; escort each other; escort each other till morning.
It so happened that Osogo the Bird was good at singing. He would sing like asilili, his voice would blend with virtually everything. So Osogo the Bird was invited to a big feast by some king in a far off place. Osogo the Bird shared his story with his friend the Tortoise for who doesn’t know of the rumour that the Tortoise’s shell makes a wonderful drum.
It so happened then that at that time there was scarcity in the land and all mouths lacked what to eat. The Tortoise’s stomach was so shrunk that it disappeared in his shell.
“Oh, I can escort you my dundedunde and you know my shell is a good drum,” the tortoise said salivating.
“But you can’t fly, I shall be flying to the party with my band members,” replied Osogo the Bird.
Soon the Tortoise had come up with a suggestion. And the birds gave him each a feather and from the feathers which birds gave him, he, the Tortoise fashioned some colourful wings.
They set off, happy and excited. They flew, they flew, and as they flew and along the way, the Tortoise told the bird: “Where we are going, we must change our names because that is those people’s cultures. So, Osogo the Bird changed his name to Osogo Winyo the Singer. The Dove called himself Akuru Wuon Obondo, the Owl called himself, Tula Nyongoro, Hornbill called himself Arum Tidi. They all changed their names. Finally it was the Tortoise’s turn to give his new name. He called himself a strange name: he said he would be called: All Of You. Everybody laughed and they sang him a song;
Yaye opuk rakoti
Yawa opuk rakoti
Wait! They soon reached the place, they were going and those people welcomed them. They settled down and played their music, Osogo the Bird singing his heart out. Then at meal time things changed. When food was brought, the Tortoise who was now salivating asked their host, “Whose food is this?”
The host replied, “It is for all of you.” Upon which the Tortoise looked at Osogo the Bird with a knowing smile and settled down for proper eating. He ate all the delicacies that were served and his stomach swelled and filled his shell. Osogo Winyo the bird and the band members watched as the Tortoise ate and had to gnaw the bones of the left overs. Soon the bird left for home bitter and hungry.
That is the end of my story.
1. Giving a reason, classify the above narrative? (2 marks)
2. Explain the significance of the following oral devices as used in the above narrative:(3 marks)
b. Use of song
c. Opening formula
3. Why does the story use animal characters as opposed to human being?( 2 marks)
4. Identify and explain any political activity evident in the story.(2 mark)
5. What is the moral teaching of this story? (2 mark)
6. Why would we say that the birds were gullible? (2marks)
7. Why do you think Osogo the Bird shared his story with the Tortoise?(2 mark)
8. Why did the tortoise look at Osogo the Bird with a knowing smile? (3 mark)
9. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage(3 marks)
Grammar (15 marks)
a)Provide a word which sounds the same as each of the following words.(4 marks)
b)Replace the words in bold with suitable phrasal verbs ( 3 marks)
i) The government can no longer tolerate corruption among its officers.
ii)The old man was shocked by the young man’s behaviour.
iii)I was quite infuriated with Solomon’s behaviour.
c)Supply the gender neutral word for each of the following.( 4 marks)
iv) Sales man
d) Replace the underlined phrasal verb with one word that means the same as the phrasal verb. ( 3 marks)
i)We could not make out what the speaker was saying.
ii)The next issues of the famous magazine comes out next week.
iii)I cannot put up with his behavior anymore
e)Use the following pair of words to bring out their different meanings.( 1 mark)