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Form 2 CRE Notes On Old Testament Prophecies About The Messiah And The Concept Of The Messiah In The New Testament
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TOPIC 1.OLD TESTAMENT PROPHECIES ABOUT THE MESSIAH AND THE CONCEPT OF MESSIAH IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
THE BACKGROUND OF LUKE’S GOSPEL
Who is Luke?
- Luke was a doctor (Physician) by profession. This is brought out in Paul’s letter to Colossians (Col 4:14).
- He accompanied Paul in most of his journeys (2nd Tim 4: 11). He accompanied Paul to Jerusalem where he was captured.
- He is also the writer of the book of Acts of the Apostles.
- He was Assyrian from Antioch (Non-Jew).
- He never married until he died at the age of 84yrs.
- He was not an eye witness of Jesus of the work and His ministry.
Where did Luke get the materials?
1. He got information from eye witnesses (Oral tradition) Luke 1:2
2. He also used other Gospel that had been written early such as the book of Mark (Luke 1:30) the sequence of events in Luke’s gospel is similar to that of Mark.
3. He is also believed to have been inspired by the Holy Spirit.
4. There are also episodes that appeared only in Mathew and Luke such as the stories about the birth of Jesus. Scholars therefore believed that he must have used a source that was common to him and Mathew.
5. There are also other events that also appeared in Luke’s Gospel e.g in Parable of Good Samaritan. It is therefore believed that he must have used the source that was peculiar to him probably an earlier gospel that does not form part of the standard Bible.
6. Having also been an experienced and educated person (doctor), he could have used his experience to write a more orderly account of the work and life of Jesus.
Why Luke wrote the Gospel
1) To strengthen the faith of those being persecuted.
2) To show that Christianity had replaced Judaism.
3) That Jesus was the Messiah.
4) For Theopilus and his readers to know the full truth about Jesus.
5) To give a more orderly account of the works and life of Jesus.
6) To show that Jesus was a universal savior.
7) To show that Jesus was innocent although crucified by the Jewish religious authority.
THE OLD TESTAMENT PROPHESIES ABOUT MESSIAH
- During the time when the Israelites were suffering in exile there emerged prophets who gave the Israelites hope.
- This hope was expressed in Isaiah 9:6-7, 11: 1-5, Jeremiah 23:5-6. This hope became strong especially during exile in Babylon.
ROLES OF PROPHETS
1. The prophets foretold the future
2. They warned the people of the impending punishment that God would bring on His people because of disobedience.
3. They called people for repentance.
4. They acted as God’s messengers.
5. They brought hope to the Israelites especially during the time of suffering.
6. They foretold the coming of the Messiah.
CONCEPTS OF MESSIAH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
- The term Messiah means Anointed One.
- The opinions of scholars differ widely on the meaning of the word as is applied in the Old Testament. At times, it has been used to refer to David; it was also used to refer to the priests who were the descendants of Levi.
- The Messiah therefore seems to refer to an Israelite who was to bring salvation to mankind.
- During the time of the prophets they foretold the coming of the Messiah, and the time God made a covenant with King David through Prophet Nathan, God promised that the Messiah would come from the house of King David, and would be an everlasting ruler (2nd Sam. 7)
- Prophet Micah also foretold that the messiah would be born in the town of David called Bethlehem (Micah 5:2-5)
- Prophet Isaiah also pointed out that a young woman shall conceive and bear a son .He shall be called Emanuel (Isaiah 7:10-16)
- Isaiah continues to prophesies that, the child to be born would be a special child and would have the following titles
1. A wonderful counselor
2. Everlasting Father
3. Prince of peace
He would rule with justice and righteousness for ever
Isaiah gives the concept of the Messiah as a suffering one
I. He would be despised, rejected, wounded oppressed and afflicted
II. He endured pain and suffering which would have been ours.
III. Because of our sins he was wounded
IV. We are healed by the punishment he suffered He was treated harshly but he never said a word
V. He was put in the grave with the wicked
VI. He was buried with the rich even though he did not commit a crime
VII. He took the place of many sinners and prayed that they might be forgiven.
Due to these messianic prophesies, the Israelites were eagerly waiting for the coming of the promised Messiah
Christians believe that Jesus fulfilled Isaiah’s prophecy on the suffering servant.
THE JEWISH UNDERSTANDING OF THE MESSIAH
- He would be a military leader.
- He would be a political messiah.
- He would lead the Israelites into wars against their neighbors
- The Messiah would come from the house of King David.
- He would come after the return of Elijah
- He would establish an everlasting Kingdom
- The messiah was to appear in Jerusalem in full glory
- He would set the Israelites from their enemies.
- A Messiah who would not mix with the poor and the Gentiles The messiah was to appear in Jerusalem in full glory
- He would set the Israelites free from their enemies.
- A Messiah who would not mix with the poor and the Gentiles
THE CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
Luke’s Gospel portrays Jesus as the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophesies about the messiah by.
- Joseph the foster father of Jesus was a descendant of King David (LK1:26-27).This fulfils Nathan’s prophesy that the Messiah would be born form the house of King David
- On several occasions, Jesus is referred to as the son of David e.g. The blind beggar at the gate of Jericho referred to Jesus as the son of David (Lk.18:35-43)
- The same titles which were given to the Messiah by Prophet Isaiah are the same titles repeated by angel Gabriel as he announced the birth of Jesus to Mary (LK.1:32-33).That he would be great and he would be called the son of the most high God and that his kingdom will never end .
- Angel Gabriel appeared to Mary who was a virgin and told her that she would give birth to a son .This fulfils Isaiah’s prophecy that “|a virgin shall conceive and give birth to a son (Is.7:14)
- Jesus was born in Bethlehem, the city of David .this fulfils what had been foretold by Micah (Mic.5:2-3)
- At the beginning of His ministry, Jesus entered the synagogue on a Sabbath day and read a scripture from the book of Isaiah (61:1-3) .he declared that he was the fulfillment of what had been prophesied by Isaiah (Lk.16-19)
- When Jesus was rejected at Nazareth by his own people (Lk.4:16-22) .This fulfilled what had been prophesied by Isaiah that the Messiah would be despised and rejected.
- In Lk. 9:18-21, Jesus asked his disciples whom they thought he was, Peter answered “you are the Christ of God” .This is an indication that even the disciples acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah
- During Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem, the people sang and claimed that he was the king .Singing “blessed is the King who comes in the name of the lord”.(Lk.19:36-40)
Even during the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin, when he was asked if he was really the son of god, he replied “you have said so” an indication that he was the promised Messiah.
- Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah shall bring salvation to the whole world .This is echoed by Simeon in the temple when he said that the Lord has kept His promise that he would not die before seeing the Messiah(Lk.2:25 .
- Isaiah prophesied that the messiah would work miracles (Is.26:25-35) i.e. the dead shall rise .This is fulfilled when on several occasions Jesus raised the dead e.g. the raising of Jairus daughter